IMPORTANT: You are responsible for obtaining the proper travel documents for the destinations on your itinerary.
Passports: Your U.S. passport should be valid at least 6 months or longer beyond the dates of travel. Passport applications are available at most U.S. Post Offices, as well as at regional Passport Agencies. To learn how to apply for a U.S. Passport including expedited services, click here. Passengers requiring visas, whether obtained in advance or locally upon arrival, should ensure that their passport has unstamped visa pages.
Visas: If a visa is required and cannot be obtained upon arrival in your destination, you should make arrangements with the appropriate foreign consular representative, allowing enough time for mailing and processing. Alternatively, you may obtain a visa through a fee-based service such as GEN VISA. Please note that GEN VISA is unable to assist passengers who choose to apply for their visas directly.
Double Entry/ Multiple Entry Visas: If your itinerary involves entering a country, leaving and then later re-entering the same country, you may require a double-entry or multiple entry visa. Be sure to describe your itinerary clearly when contacting a foreign consular representative.
Entry Requirements for U.S. Passport Holders: Country details below are based on information obtained from the U.S. State Department. This information is subject to change. To check for updates, please check with the consular office of the countries to be visited and/or click here.
Non U.S. Citizens: All information provided below pertains to U.S. passport holders only. Non-U.S. Citizens should check with the appropriate foreign consular representative.
Sea Cruise Passengers: Passengers on sea cruises should check carefully the requirements for each country to be visited on their sailing itinerary. Passengers without the correct documentation may be denied boarding at time of embarkation. Passengers may contact their sea cruise line directly for information but remain responsible to obtain any necessary visas.
Yellow Fever Vaccine: The US Center for Disease Control reports that the Yellow Fever vaccine is currently in short supply and distributed at only certain locations in the USA. Click here for more information. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/search-for-stamaril-clinics. The CDC estimates supply will improve toward the end of 2018. Gate 1 recommends guests needing this vaccine for travel to certain African, South and Central American countries to contact your nearest clinic as early as possible to determine availability.
International Entry & Visa Requirements for U.S. Passport Holders
Countries listed below require specific visa and/or other entry documentation in addition to a U.S. passport. All other countries (not listed) require only valid U.S. passports.
|ARGENTINA - Payment of the reciprocity fee is no longer required for US passport holders. All other citizens, including Canadian citizens, should check with the appropriate Argentinian consulate for current fee information.|
|AUSTRALIA - Electronic Travel Authority (ETA) visa is required. See eta.immi.gov.au for more information. Please click on the "Apply for ETA" button in the top left hand corner to fill in the on-line application form for an ETA visa. Additional information regarding this visa can be found at the various links directly below the "Apply for ETA" and "Check your ETA" buttons.|
|BELARUS - Visa required as you are entering the country at a land border via motor coach. The visa application process requires an application form, a valid passport with six months remaining validity, one passport-sized photo, your trip confirmation from Gate 1 Travel, a Letter of Invitation (also known as a Visa Support Letter - VSL) also provided by Gate 1 Travel, proof of medical insurance and a processing fee. Two days following your initial booking and deposit, you will receive complete information via email about obtaining a Visa Support Letter (VSL) and a visa for Belarus, and then again at 120 days prior to departure. More information and an application form are available at http://usa.mfa.gov.by/en/consular_issues/visas/. If a revision is required to correct any errors after the VSL has been issued, a $50 per person Belarus Visa Support Letter change fee will be applied. Proof of medical insurance must show coverage valid in the Republic of Belarus or the entire world. Because US-based medical insurance might not provide coverage in Belarus, you are urged to check with your insurance carrier to verify coverage. Alternatively, many Travel Protection policies include an emergency medical component which meets the requirements of the Belarus government. Please check with your Travel Protection provider to verify coverage. More information is available at http://mfa.gov.by/en/visa/info/cc9071395f5f804a.html#2. Visa services are available in person or by mail at the Embassy of Belarus in the USA in Washington, DC or Consulate General of Belarus in New York. Contact details are available at http://usa.mfa.gov.by/en/embassy/. Alternatively, you may obtain a visa through a fee-based service such as GEN VISA. Please note that GEN VISA is unable to assist passengers who choose to apply for their visas directly. Visa processing can take up to 6 weeks during which time your passport will be unavailable for other international trips.|
|BHUTAN -A visa is required for entry into Bhutan and is obtained on your behalf by Gate 1 Travel. In this case only, the included visa service applies to all nationalities. Passport must be valid for six months beyond travel dates.|
|BOLIVIA - Visa required. Due to potential for lengthy delays at the Peru/Bolivia border, guests MUST obtain their Bolivian visa in advance. Visas may be obtained by mail or in person at the Bolivian Consulate in the U.S. corresponding to your state of residence. In addition to a passport with a validity of at least 6 months, applicants must submit a completed application, one color passport photo, evidence of a hotel reservation or letter of invitation in Spanish, tour itinerary, proof of economic solvency (credit card, cash or a current bank statement) and application fee. A Yellow Fever vaccine may be required if traveling in certain parts of Bolivia or changing planes in Santa Cruz. A Yellow Fever vaccine is recommended, but not required, if travel in Bolivia is only on Gate 1 Travel or Discovery Tours programs. For more Yellow Fever information please visit https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/yellow-fever-malaria-information-by-country/bolivia#seldyfm879. For more Bolivian visa information contact the Embassy of Bolivia at 1825 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 200C, Washington, D.C. 20009; Telephone: 202-232-4828 or 202-232-4827; Website: http://boliviawdc.org/consulate/visas/tv There are Bolivian Consulates General in Houston, Los Angeles, Miami and New York. Alternatively, you may obtain a visa through a fee-based service such as GEN VISA. Please note that GEN VISA is unable to assist passengers who choose to apply for their visas directly.|
|BRAZIL - Visa required for arrivals through June 16, 2019. Due to a recent change by the Brazilian government, visas are no longer required after that date. If you need a visa, one may be obtained in advance at https://brazil.vfsevisa.com/brazil/online/. E-Visas will be processed within five business days of application, are valid for 2 years, and cost $40 plus a small service fee. (VFS Global is the exclusive service provider for the Government of Brazil). Click here for more information. For all other questions, contact the Brazilian Embassy at 3006 Whitehaven Street, NW Washington DC 20008-3634. Phone (202) 238-2700. There are also Brazilian Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco. Alternatively, you may obtain a visa through a fee-based service such as GEN VISA. Please note that GEN VISA is unable to assist passengers who choose to apply for their visas directly.|
|CAMBODIA - Visa required. US citizens may obtain a Cambodian visa for $35 upon arrival at the airports in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, and at all major border crossings. One passport-sized photograph is required. E-Visas may also be obtained in advance online at least 3 business days prior to travel at https://www.evisa.gov.kh/ for $37 and are only valid for entry by air. Please note E-Visas are not accepted when entering by cruise into Cambodia. Visas must be purchased locally in cash on board the ship and a passport size photograph is required. For more information, visit www.embassyofcambodia.org or contact the Embassy of Cambodia, 4530 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20011; Telephone: 202-726-7742 or 202-997-7031|
|CANADA - US citizens do not need a visa to visit Canada. Important: Non-US citizens may need a visa or, if traveling via Canada to another country, a transit visa may be required. The Transit Without Visa program (TWOV) and China Transit Program (CTP) allow certain foreign nationals to transit through Canada on their way to and from the United States without a Canadian transit visa. For more information, visit www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/twov/index.asp. Canada's mandatory entry requirement, known as an Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA), is for visa-exempt foreign nationals traveling to or through Canada by air. Travelers will need an eTA before they can board their flight to Canada. Exceptions include U.S. citizens and travelers with a valid visa. Permanent residents of the U.S. will need a eTA to visit or transit through Canada by air. To determine if you need an eTA and to apply through an online process, please visit http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/visit/eta.asp. You will need a passport, a credit card, and an email address. The eTA costs $7.00 Canadian, is valid for five years or until a passport expires (whichever comes first), and electronically links the passport used for travel. Multiple entries to Canada are permitted.|
|CHINA - Visa required. U.S. passport holders are required to provide documentation to support their visa application which includes (1) full passport name; (2) hotel names, addresses and phone numbers; and (3) confirmed airline reservations with ticket numbers. This information will be provided to you in writing by Gate 1 upon receipt of your full payment and once airline tickets have been issued. To learn how to obtain a visa from the Embassy of the People's Republic of China (PRC), visit www.china-embassy.org/eng/visas/ for more information.There are also Chinese Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco. Two days following your initial booking and deposit, you will receive complete information via email about obtaining a visa to China. For customers connecting in Beijing and staying for only 2 nights, you may be eligible for the newly introduced 72 hour Transit Without Visa (TWOV) program. Please visit https://www.gate1travel.com/china-japan-travel/beijing-transit.aspx for additional information. Special note for customers also visiting TIBET - A group permit is required for travel to Tibet and will be obtained for you upon final payment. In order to secure the Tibet visa on your behalf, Discovery Tours will need a scanned copy of your passport and China visa 45 days before departure from the US. The cost of this permit is included in the package price. At this time, Gate 1 is only able to obtain a Tibet visa for U.S. passport holders. For all passengers traveling to Tibet, when applying for your Chinese Visa, in Section 2, of the application, Your Visit to China - 2.5 Please list Counties/Cities and Provinces to visit in China in a time sequence, it is only necessary to include : Shanghai, Xian and Beijing. Click here for more information. Alternatively, you may obtain a visa through a fee-based service such as GEN VISA. Please note that GEN VISA is unable to assist passengers who choose to apply for their visas directly.|
|EGYPT - Visa required. Single-entry visas valid for 30 days may be purchased upon arrival. Cost is $25 and payable only in cash. Exact change required. No credit cards accepted. Upon arrival, proceed to one of the bank kiosks in the Immigration hall to obtain a self-adhesive visa sticker. Apply the sticker to a blank page of your passport and proceed to the immigration desks. To avoid any possible lines at the kiosk, you may also obtain a visa sticker direct from the ground operator meeting your flight holding a Gate 1 sign for a service fee of $2 per person plus cost of the visa. Exact change required. No credit cards accepted. Alternatively, prior to your arrival in Egypt you may apply for an e-visa at https://visa2egypt.gov.eg or use a fee-based service such as GEN VISA.|
|INDIA - Visa required. Passengers may utilize India’s recently introduced online visa application process. Single or Dual entry visa’s may be obtained using the Online Visa on Arrival process. Passengers may complete their application online for $160 plus applicable fees at https://indianvisaonline.gov.in/visa/tvoa.html. Passengers who enter India, continue to Nepal or Bhutan, and then re-enter India will require a dual or multiple entry visa for India depending on the total number of entries into India. Alternatively, passengers may visit https://indianvisaonline.gov.in/visa/. All visa applications which are applied for directly with the consulate or GenVisa will be multiple entry. No single entry visas are available through these outlets. However, passengers who require only a single entry may still utilize and apply for a multiple entry visa. Passengers traveling to India will need to provide a reference, including name, address, and phone number, for their Indian visa. Click here for this information. Two days following your initial booking and deposit, you will receive complete information via email about obtaining a visa to India. For additional information on your Indian visa or locations to apply in person, please visit http://www.in.ckgs.us/. Visa applications should be submitted as early as possible as visa processing may require as long as 30 days. Alternatively, you may obtain a visa through a fee-based service such as GEN VISA. Please note that GEN VISA is unable to assist passengers who choose to apply for their visas directly.|
|INDONESIA - Visa required. US citizens are eligible for visa exemption for visits up to 30 days. In order to be granted this visa exemption you must present your return ticket at immigration and have not been previously refused entry. For those needing to extend their stay past 30 days, visas may be purchased at airports in Jakarta, Surakarta and Bali upon arrival for $35. For additional visa information please visit http://www.embassyofindonesia.org/.|
|JORDAN - In most cases, Jordan visas are arranged for you by Gate 1 based on the following situations:
1. Passengers with overnights in Jordan (includes Jordan tours, as well as Israel & Jordan combination tours): Gate 1 will arrange your visa free of charge. In this case only, the free visa service applies to all nationalities. We will request your passport information which is needed at least 21 days prior to departure. Upon arrival in Jordan, either at Amman Airport or at one of the land border crossings between Israel and Jordan, before you reach passport control, a local Gate 1 representative will provide you with a one-page letter (Visa Manifest) which you should keep until you depart from Jordan. The Visa Manifest will include your full passport information and details of your tour program and should be presented upon entry to Jordan. It will be required again upon departure from Jordan. Note: In case the manifest is lost (or in the unlikely event you change your schedule), a $60 visa fee will apply upon departure.
2. Passengers with a 1 day tour to Petra: Gate 1 will obtain a visa locally for approximately $60 as long as your passport information is provided to the Israel Tour Manager at least 48 hours in advance. This is in addition to the border taxes & fees.
3. Other passengers: This applies in only a few exceptional cases. Please check with Gate 1 before obtaining your visa in advance. A single entry visa costs approximately $60 and can be obtained in advance or on arrival at certain entry points. Please contact the Jordanian Embassy for more information: Embassy of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, 3504 International Drive, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008; Telephone: 202-966-2664. http://www.jordanembassyus.org/page/consulate-forms
|KENYA - Visa required. The current fee for a single entry visa is $51 and must be obtained in advance. Passengers continuing onto Tanzania, and connecting in Nairobi, Kenya for their final departure flight to the US do not require a transit or multiple entry visa. A single entry visa is valid for connecting flights. Passengers traveling to Kenya will need to provide a reference, including name, address, and phone number, for their Kenyan visa. Click here for further information. Passengers continuing onto Tanzania from Kenya must carry proof of yellow fever vaccination. To apply directly for a Single Entry visa, go to evisa.go.ke and follow the instructions. You will await approval via email (approx. 2 days), then download and print the eVisa to be presented upon entry to Kenya. The eVisa is valid for 3 months before travel. Contact the Kenyan Embassy at 2247 R-Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008; Telephone: 202-387-6101; Website: http://www.kenyaembassy.com/. Alternatively, you may obtain a visa through a fee-based service such as GEN VISA. Please note that GEN VISA is unable to assist passengers who choose to apply for their visas directly.|
|LAOS - Visa required. Tourists may obtain a visa for $35 upon arrival at the airports in Vientiane and Luang Prabang, and at major border crossings. Two passport-sized photographs are required.|
|MYANMAR - Visa required. An e-visa must be obtained in advance. See https://evisa.moip.gov.mm/ for more information and to apply. E-visas are processed within 3 business days of application and cost $50. Upon approval, you will be emailed an e-visa Approval Letter which must be printed prior to the start of your trip and presented to the Immigration official upon arrival in Myanmar. Do not apply too early as you must enter the country within 90 days of Approval Letter issuance. Alternatively, you may obtain a visa through a fee-based service such as GEN VISA. Please note that GEN VISA is unable to assist passengers who choose to apply for their visas directly.|
|NEPAL - Visa required. Tourists may obtain a visa for $25 for a 15 day stay, or $40 for a 30 day stay, payable in cash upon arrival at the airport in Kathmandu. Passengers requiring a multiple entry visa will need to pay an additional $20 to validate their visa for multiple entries. Passengers should bring two passport sized photographs for the visa. Prior to departure from Kathmandu airport, there is an airport tax of approx. $17 for passengers traveling to India. Passengers returning to India for the second time in the same trip will require a multiple entry visa for India. To avoid the possibility of standing in a long line, you may choose to secure your Nepal visa prior to departure. For information, you may contact the Royal Nepalese Embassy at 2131 Leroy Place, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008, telephone 202-667-4550 or visit nepalembassyusa.org or contact the Consulate General in New York at 212-370-3988.|
|NEW ZEALAND - Beginning October 1, 2019 the New Zealand government will require an Electronic Travel Authority (ETA) visa and payment of an International Visitor Conservation and Tourism Levy in order to enter the country. Travelers will be able to apply for their ETA and pay all applicable fees online starting in July 2019. More information is available at https://www.etanewzealand.com/. Because further details are still being finalized by the New Zealand government, please continue checking their website for any updates and changes.|
|OMAN - Visa required. An e-visa must be obtained in advance at https://evisa.rop.gov.om/en/visa-eligibility. You will need to upload a digital passport photo and a copy of your passport to your application. A 10-day single-entry tourist visa costs 5 OMR (approximately US$13) and a 30-day single-entry tourist visa costs OMR 20 (approximately $52). Do not apply too early as your visa requires you to enter Oman within 30 days of visa issuance. Please keep in mind you will be spending time in the UAE before entering Oman. Guests will also be required to pay a 35 AED departure fee (approximately $10 payable locally by credit card or cash in AED currency) during the land crossing from Dubai to Oman.|
|RUSSIA - Visa required. The visa application process requires an application form, a valid passport, one passport-sized photo, your trip confirmation from Gate 1, a Visa Support Letter (VSL) also provided by Gate 1, and a processing fee. Two days following your initial booking and deposit, you will receive complete information via email about obtaining a Visa Support Letter (VSL) and a visa to Russia, and then again at 120 days prior to departure. If a revision is required after the VSL has been issued, there is a $50 per person Russia Visa Support Letter change fee that will be applied. Visas services for the Embassy of the Russian Federation are managed by Invisa Logistics Services at their Visa Center, 1680 Wisconsin Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C.Tel. (202) 827-0895; Fax (202) 827-0896. All applicants must first complete an online Visa Application Form at http://visa.kdmid.ru and then either appear in person at the Visa Center ($33 fee in addition to the Consular visa fees) or submit their application via a visa service. Details at https://washington.mid.ru/en/. (Note - although the Russian embassy recommends multiple-entry visas for US citizens, it is not necessary. A single-entry visa is sufficient for itineraries with one entrance into the Russian Federation). Norwegian Cruise Line® passengers do not need a visa if arranging shore excursions or car service directly with the cruise line, otherwise regular visa rules above apply. Alternatively, you may obtain a visa through a fee-based service such as GEN VISA. Please note that GEN VISA is unable to assist passengers who choose to apply for their visas directly. Visa processing can take up to 6 weeks during which time your passport will be unavailable for other international trips.|
|SLOVAKIA - Proof of sufficient health insurance coverage and funds (generally in the amount of $50 per person per day) are required upon entry.|
|SOUTH AFRICA - Passengers are required to have at least two, entirely blank (unstamped) visa pages (i.e. one side of such a page not front and back thereof) in their passport, each time entry is sought into South Africa. This includes re-entry from eSwatini. Therefore passengers continuing on to Zimbabwe and/or Botswana are required to have four blank visa pages. These pages are in addition to the endorsement/amendment pages at the back of the passport. South African government regulations prohibit airlines from boarding passengers without the required blank visa page. Children 17 & under will be required to present an unabridged full birth certificate. Extracts or copies are not acceptable. If both parents are not traveling with the child, additional documentation is required. For more information regarding children's entry requirements please visit the South African consulate website http://www.southafrica-newyork.net/homeaffairs/tourist_visa.htm or http://www.southafrica-newyork.net/homeaffairs/|
|SRI LANKA - Visa Required. Passengers may obtain Electronic Travel Authorization prior to arrival. This can be obtained by visiting http://www.eta.gov.lk and paying a $35 fee. A visa may be obtained upon arrival for $40, however wait times for processing can be lengthy. It is highly recommended to obtain a ETA prior to departure to expedite your entry.|
|eSwatini - Upon entry, passport holders traveling to eSwatini from South Africa are strongly encouraged to have several unstamped visa pages left in their passports.|
|TANZANIA - Visa required and all passport holders should have four entirely blank (unstamped) visa pages in their passport. Visas are available for purchase at the Kilimanjaro Airport, however we strongly suggest it is obtained in advance to avoid long delays and ensure entry. Visas upon arrival are not guaranteed. The current fee for a visa is $100. Passengers purchasing a visa at the airport must be prepared to pay in USD (cash). Passengers traveling to Tanzania will need to provide a reference, including name, address, and phone number, for their Tanzanian visa. Click here for further information. To pre-purchase a visa, contact the Embassy of Tanzania, 1232 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037, telephone (202) 884-1080. Alternatively, you may obtain a visa through a fee-based service such as GEN VISA. Please note that GEN VISA is unable to assist passengers who choose to apply for their visas directly. Passengers traveling to Tanzania from Kenya or another country with risk of yellow fever, must carry proof of yellow fever vaccination.|
|TURKEY - Visa required. An e-visa must be obtained in advance at https://www.evisa.gov.tr/en/. Visas are not required for sea cruise passengers who purchase shore excursions to Kusadasi and Istanbul. When entering Turkey via a land border crossing, a pre-obtained e-Visa is also required. Contact the Embassy of the Republic of Turkey at 2525 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20008, telephone: (202) 612-6700, or the Turkish consulates general inBoston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, or New York.|
|UGANDA - Visa required. Visitors to Uganda must apply for a visa in advance through the Government of Uganda's website at least two weeks prior to travel. The fee for a single entry tourist visa is $50. Passengers traveling to Uganda will need to provide a local reference, including company name, address and phone number, for their Ugandan visa. Click here for further information. Passengers traveling on the 19 Day Kenya & Uganda Wildlife Exploration may apply for an East Africa Tourist Visa for $100 which is valid for entry into Kenya and Uganda. The East Africa Tourist Visa can be obtained through the Kenyan Embassy. Please see the Kenya visa procedure listed above.|
|UZBEKISTAN - Visa required for U.S. but not for Canadian citizens. To apply for an e-visa, go to https://e-visa.gov.uz/main. E-visas are processed within a few business days after submission of the application and cost $20 per person however we recommend you give yourself sufficient time to take into account possible technology issues. If you experience technical problems with their website, you may email firstname.lastname@example.org for assistance or call Uzbekistan's visa office in Tashkent (10 hours ahead of Eastern time) at (+998 71) 200-00-88. Visas will not be issued more than 3 months before arrival. For more information go to https://mfa.uz/en/consular/visa/. Alternatively, you may obtain a visa through a fee-based service such as GEN VISA. Please note that GEN VISA is unable to assist passengers who choose to apply for their visas directly.|
|VIETNAM - Visa required. Contact Vietnamese Embassy, 1233 20th Street, Suite 400, NW, Washington, DC 20036; Website: vietnamembassy-usa.org. There are Vietnamese Consulates General in San Francisco, New York & Houston. Alternatively, you may obtain a visa through a fee-based service such as GEN VISA. Please note that GEN VISA is unable to assist passengers who choose to apply for their visas directly. Single entry e-visas may also be obtained in advance online by visiting https://www.xuatnhapcanh.gov.vn/ for a $25 fee. Approval will take about 3 days. E-visas will not be accepted when entering Vietnam by cruise.|
|ZAMBIA - Visa required. Visas may be purchased upon arrival to Zambia. US Citizens traveling on the 13 Day Zambia, Zimbabwe & South Africa Exploration and the 13 Day Deluxe South Africa with Victoria Falls and Chobe River Safari should purchase the Kaza Uni-Visa for $50. The Kaza Uni-Visa allows for multiple border crossings between Zambia and Zimbabwe as required by these itineraries. All information and rates are subject to change without notice. Payment is cash is recommended. Non-U.S. Citizens should check with the appropriate foreign consular representative.|
|ZIMBABWE - Visa required. Visas may be purchased upon arrival to Zimbabwe. US Citizens entering Zimbabwe for tourism can expect to pay $30 for a single-entry visa and $60 for a double-entry visa. Passengers traveling on the 14 Day Classic South Africa with Victoria Falls and Discovery Tours Zimbabwe, Botswana & South Africa Adventure are required to purchase only a single entry visa. Passengers traveling on the 16 Day Classic South Africa with Victoria Falls & Botswana are required to purchase a double-entry visa. Passengers traveling on the 13 Day Zambia, Zimbabwe & South Africa Exploration and the 13 Day Deluxe South Africa with Victoria Falls and Chobe River Safari should purchase the Kaza Uni-Visa for $50. The Kaza Uni-Visa allows for multiple border crossings between Zambia and Zimbabwe as required by these itineraries. All information and rates are subject to change without notice. Payment in cash is recommended. Non-U.S. Citizens should check with the appropriate foreign consular representative.|
All information and rates are subject to change without notice. Non-U.S. Citizens should check with the appropriate foreign consular representative.